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1 Illustration on overlapping region selection. (a) One of the adjacent images. The red arrow indicates the direction for searching overlapping region. (b) The other of the adjacent images. (c-d) The adjacent images after overlapping region selection. Here the green dash box represents the pre-determined region used for searching the overlapping region, the green solid box represents the overlapping region, and the yellow dashed box represents the sliding candidate region.
2 Amplitude and phase of the transmission matrix components connecting the different incident modes to a single output mode (amplitude maps are average of ${n} = 10$  0.17            l      ∗       experiments). (a) For diffusive media, the amplitude of each transmission matrix element is nearly uniform regardless of the illumination NA. (b), (c) For thin anisotropic scattering media, transmission matrix elements show higher amplitude bias for lower spatial frequency input modes. (d) As the thickness is increased, the amplitude distribution of each transmission matrix component becomes more similar with the diffusive medium and evenly distributed showing that more input modes have similar contribution to the corrected focus. The corrected phase maps shown in the insets for all samples are random showing that multiple scattering is induced for all samples considered.
3 (a), (b), (c), and (d) Optical reconstruction of the 3D object in Fig. 10 with the proposed method.
4 CCD arrangement in numerical simulation.
5 Simulated PSFs on the 25 ($5 \times 5$   5   ×   5) elements of a detector array, with doughnut illumination beam.
6 Effect of coherence on the intensity distribution of a propagating laser beam from a digital degenerate cavity laser. (a) Intensity distribution with an incoherent laser light beam at ${z} = {0}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      0          m    m   and ${z} = {12.5}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      12.5          m    m   (with no intracavity aperture). (b) Intensity distribution of a more coherent laser light beam at ${z} = {0}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      0          m    m   and ${z} = {12.5}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      12.5          m    m   (with a 4 mm diameter far-field aperture).
7 Complex Jones matrix calculated for a birefringent digital phantom with an illumination angle of $\theta = 25^ \circ$  θ  =      25    ∘   and $\phi = 0^ \circ$  ϕ  =      0    ∘  . The synthetic measurements were generated using the V-BPM. In order to visualize the complex values, brightness shows the amplitude, and the color-code shows the phase of each Jones matrix component.
8 Multifunctional longitudinal magnetization patterns induced by the high-order AP-LG vortex modes with the radial modes index p and the truncation parameter β. (a1)-(a4) and (b1)-(b4) are β = 2.732, 2.051, and 1.753, and 1.576 when p = 1in the x-y plane and r-z plane, respectively; (c1)-(c4) are β = 3.545, 2.854, 2.506, and 2.411 when p = 3 in the x-y plane; (c1)-(c4) are β = 4.252, 3.489, 3.234, and 3.078 when p = 5 in the x-y plane.
9 Simulated wide-field FDCD images and chiral SIM images of chiral                            filaments with different dissymmetry factors controlled by the                            multiplication factor m. (a-c) Deconvolved wide-field                            FDCD images with                                 $m$                                        m                                                                 = 1, 10, and 100, respectively. (d-f) Reconstructed                            chiral SIM images with                                 $m$                                        m                                                                 = 1, 10, and 100, respectively. In this demonstration,                                 $\Delta                                        t$                                        Δ                                        t                                                                 = 1 s and                                 ${I_0}$                                                                                                                                    I                                                0                                                                                                                                                     = 50 W/cm2. The color bar indicates the                            value of the normalized differential fluorescence. Scale bar: 2 μm. The                            yellow arrows mark an area, which shows resolution improvement in chiral                            SIM images.
10 Fluence profiles of the 		  $s\!$		      s		      		    		-polarized beam after passage through (a) one Si plate, (b) two Si plates (beam-displacement compensating arrangement), and (c) three Si plates consisting of two plates in the beam-displacement compensating arrangement and one additional parallel plate.
11 Schematic representation of the imaging and quantification protocol: (a) images of two histology slides containing serial tissue sections, two stained with H&E (upper slide), and two unstained (lower slide, with the arrows indicating the position of the tissue sections); (b) large image depicting one H&E-stained tissue section; (c) image sets acquired on slides containing breast tissue; (d) polarization angle vs. SHG intensity (color-coded, with frames from 0 to 10 corresponding to polarization angles from 0° to 180° in steps of 20°) and images obtained from the FSHG image set and corresponding histograms; (e) image sets acquired on slides containing epithelial tissue. For (c) and (e) the MPM images are pseudo-colored: blue-color for FSHG, green-color for BSHG and red-color for autofluorescent tissue regions (probed by TPEF).
12 Ballistic expansion, coupling, and interference of two polariton condensates. Recorded (a) and (d) real-space and (b) and (e) far-field PL of two condensates with separation distances 		  ${d_{12}} = 12.7\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      12.7		      		      			µ			m		      		    		 and 		  ${d_{12}} = 89.3\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      89.3		      		      			µ			m		      		    		. Corresponding far-field interference patterns after masking of the emission in real space to block all emission outside the 		  $2\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      2		      		      			µ			m		      		    		 FWHM of each condensate node are shown in (c) and (f). (g) Distance dependence of the integrated complex coherence factor 		  $|{\tilde\mu_{12}}|$		      			|		      		      						  			    			      μ			      ~			    			  			  			    12			  					      		      			|		      		    		, while keeping the excitation pump power constant at 		  $P = 1.2{P_{\text{thr}}}$		      P		      =		      1.2		      						  P			  			    thr			  					      		    		, where 		  ${P_{\text{thr}}}$		      						  P			  			    thr			  					      		    		 is the measured threshold pump power at a distance of 		  ${d_{12}} = 12.7\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      12.7		      		      			µ			m		      		    		. Blue circles correspond to experimental data and orange squares to GPE simulations. Red curve is a Gaussian fit [Eq. (2)] to the experimental data points. Inset shows the pump power dependence of the coherence between two condensates separated at 		  ${d_{12}} = 12.7\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      12.7		      		      			µ			m		      		    		. False color scale in (f) applies to (b)–(c) and (e)–(f) in linear scale and to (a) and (d) in logarithmic scale saturated below 		  ${10^{- 4}}$		      						  10			  			    −			    4			  					      		    		 of the maximum count rate. Scale bars in (a) and (d) and (b)–(c) and (e)–(f) correspond to 		  $10\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      10		      		      			µ			m		      		    		 and 		  $1\;{{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}^{- 1}}$		      1		      		      						  			    µ			    m			  			  			    −			    1			  					      		    		, respectively.