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1 Reconstructed wavefronts (left) and errors (right) of the three							methods when reconstructing a wavefront containing high							spatial frequency information. (a), (b) The FFT method; (c),							(d) the LSQ method; (e), (f) the DZF method.
2 Sheared wavefronts of the wavefront from the micro-objective in							the (a) 		  $ x $		      x		    		 direction and (b) 		  $ y $		      y		    		 direction.
3 Complex Jones matrix calculated for a birefringent digital phantom with an illumination angle of $\theta = 25^ \circ$  θ  =      25    ∘   and $\phi = 0^ \circ$  ϕ  =      0    ∘  . The synthetic measurements were generated using the V-BPM. In order to visualize the complex values, brightness shows the amplitude, and the color-code shows the phase of each Jones matrix component.
4 Evolution history of the unit cell topology for maximizing the seventh band gap of PhCs under TM mode. Obtained topologies after (a) the first, (b) the second, (c) the fourth, (d) the sixth, (e) the eighth sub-optimization problems, and (f) the final optimum.
5 Ballistic expansion, coupling, and interference of two polariton condensates. Recorded (a) and (d) real-space and (b) and (e) far-field PL of two condensates with separation distances 		  ${d_{12}} = 12.7\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      12.7		      		      			µ			m		      		    		 and 		  ${d_{12}} = 89.3\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      89.3		      		      			µ			m		      		    		. Corresponding far-field interference patterns after masking of the emission in real space to block all emission outside the 		  $2\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      2		      		      			µ			m		      		    		 FWHM of each condensate node are shown in (c) and (f). (g) Distance dependence of the integrated complex coherence factor 		  $|{\tilde\mu_{12}}|$		      			|		      		      						  			    			      μ			      ~			    			  			  			    12			  					      		      			|		      		    		, while keeping the excitation pump power constant at 		  $P = 1.2{P_{\text{thr}}}$		      P		      =		      1.2		      						  P			  			    thr			  					      		    		, where 		  ${P_{\text{thr}}}$		      						  P			  			    thr			  					      		    		 is the measured threshold pump power at a distance of 		  ${d_{12}} = 12.7\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      12.7		      		      			µ			m		      		    		. Blue circles correspond to experimental data and orange squares to GPE simulations. Red curve is a Gaussian fit [Eq. (2)] to the experimental data points. Inset shows the pump power dependence of the coherence between two condensates separated at 		  ${d_{12}} = 12.7\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      						  d			  			    12			  					      		      =		      12.7		      		      			µ			m		      		    		. False color scale in (f) applies to (b)–(c) and (e)–(f) in linear scale and to (a) and (d) in logarithmic scale saturated below 		  ${10^{- 4}}$		      						  10			  			    −			    4			  					      		    		 of the maximum count rate. Scale bars in (a) and (d) and (b)–(c) and (e)–(f) correspond to 		  $10\;{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}$		      10		      		      			µ			m		      		    		 and 		  $1\;{{\unicode{x00B5}\text{m}}^{- 1}}$		      1		      		      						  			    µ			    m			  			  			    −			    1			  					      		    		, respectively.
6 Histological analysis of imaged porcine intestinal tissues. The high-resolution digital histology image of H & E-stained fixed tissue (a, d), mapping of regional trends in nucleus diameter (b, e), and mapping of regional trends in effective nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (NCR) (c, f) are shown for the two tissue samples imaged and analyzed in Fig. 6 (top row) and Fig. 7 (bottom row). The epithelium (Epi), lamina propria (LP), and Peyer’s Patches (PP) are indicated.
7 Simulated PSFs on the 25 ($5 \times 5$   5   ×   5) elements of a detector array, with doughnut illumination beam.
8 2D classification. Representative examples of reconstructed 2D models shown on a logarithmic scale, with each row representing a different sample. The numbers indicate how many patterns had that model as the most likely one. The first two columns show models selected for further processing. The third column shows diffraction from rounded/spherical particles, except in the cub17 case where there were no spherical particles and the model shows diffraction from a dimer instead. The fourth column shows some of the low-contrast models generated by averaging patterns from a diverse set of particles. The resolution at the edge of the circle is 3.3 nm.
9 Customizing speckles for nonlinear pattern illumination. (a) Experimentally recorded speckle pattern that illuminates and photoconverts a uniform fluorescent protein sample. Within the white box, the speckles obey delta statistics, and outside they obey Rayleigh statistics. (b) Experimentally recorded image of the fluorescence from the unconverted regions shows isometric and isotropic spots produced by the vortices in the delta speckles; the region photoconverted by the Rayleigh speckles features large, irregular, and interconnected fluorescent grains.
10 Spatiotemporal HBT effect under different values of (a)-(h) 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {I}}$		  		    σ		    		      			I		      		    		  			    , (i)-(p) 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {cs}}$		  		    σ		    		      			cs		      		    		  			     with (a)-(d), (i)-(l) 	      $q_{12}$		  		    q		    		      12		    		  			     = 0 and (e)-(h), (m)-(p) 	      $q_{12}$		  		    q		    		      12		    		  			     = 0.0001 cm	      $^{-1}$		  		    		    		      −		      1		    		  			    . Other parameters are 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {I}}$		  		    σ		    		      			I		      		    		  			     = 2 cm, 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {cs}}$		  		    σ		    		      			cs		      		    		  			     = 0.1 cm, 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {t}}$		  		    σ		    		      			t		      		    		  			     = 10 ps, 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {ct}}$		  		    σ		    		      			ct		      		    		  			     = 10 ps, 	      $z$		  z			     = 1000 m and 	      $q_{14}$		  		    q		    		      14		    		  			     = 	      $q_{12}/10$		  		    q		    		      12		    		  		  		    /		  		  10			    .
11 Amplitude and phase of the transmission matrix components connecting the different incident modes to a single output mode (amplitude maps are average of ${n} = 10$  0.17            l      ∗       experiments). (a) For diffusive media, the amplitude of each transmission matrix element is nearly uniform regardless of the illumination NA. (b), (c) For thin anisotropic scattering media, transmission matrix elements show higher amplitude bias for lower spatial frequency input modes. (d) As the thickness is increased, the amplitude distribution of each transmission matrix component becomes more similar with the diffusive medium and evenly distributed showing that more input modes have similar contribution to the corrected focus. The corrected phase maps shown in the insets for all samples are random showing that multiple scattering is induced for all samples considered.
12 Results of optimization constraints. (a) The result of 		  ${f_{1{\rm st}}}$		      						  f			  			    1			    			      s			      t			    			  					      		    		 with a value of 1.15 nm. (b) The result of 		  ${\gamma _g}$		      						  γ			  g					      		    		 with a value of 1.56 nm.