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1 Schematic representation of the imaging and quantification protocol: (a) images of two histology slides containing serial tissue sections, two stained with H&E (upper slide), and two unstained (lower slide, with the arrows indicating the position of the tissue sections); (b) large image depicting one H&E-stained tissue section; (c) image sets acquired on slides containing breast tissue; (d) polarization angle vs. SHG intensity (color-coded, with frames from 0 to 10 corresponding to polarization angles from 0° to 180° in steps of 20°) and images obtained from the FSHG image set and corresponding histograms; (e) image sets acquired on slides containing epithelial tissue. For (c) and (e) the MPM images are pseudo-colored: blue-color for FSHG, green-color for BSHG and red-color for autofluorescent tissue regions (probed by TPEF).
2 Evolution history of the unit cell topology for maximizing the seventh band gap of PhCs under TM mode. Obtained topologies after (a) the first, (b) the second, (c) the fourth, (d) the sixth, (e) the eighth sub-optimization problems, and (f) the final optimum.
3 2D classification. Representative examples of reconstructed 2D models shown on a logarithmic scale, with each row representing a different sample. The numbers indicate how many patterns had that model as the most likely one. The first two columns show models selected for further processing. The third column shows diffraction from rounded/spherical particles, except in the cub17 case where there were no spherical particles and the model shows diffraction from a dimer instead. The fourth column shows some of the low-contrast models generated by averaging patterns from a diverse set of particles. The resolution at the edge of the circle is 3.3 nm.
4 Results of optimization constraints. (a) The result of 		  ${f_{1{\rm st}}}$		      						  f			  			    1			    			      s			      t			    			  					      		    		 with a value of 1.15 nm. (b) The result of 		  ${\gamma _g}$		      						  γ			  g					      		    		 with a value of 1.56 nm.
5 Simulated wide-field FDCD images and chiral SIM images of chiral                            filaments with different dissymmetry factors controlled by the                            multiplication factor m. (a-c) Deconvolved wide-field                            FDCD images with                                 $m$                                        m                                                                 = 1, 10, and 100, respectively. (d-f) Reconstructed                            chiral SIM images with                                 $m$                                        m                                                                 = 1, 10, and 100, respectively. In this demonstration,                                 $\Delta                                        t$                                        Δ                                        t                                                                 = 1 s and                                 ${I_0}$                                                                                                                                    I                                                0                                                                                                                                                     = 50 W/cm2. The color bar indicates the                            value of the normalized differential fluorescence. Scale bar: 2 μm. The                            yellow arrows mark an area, which shows resolution improvement in chiral                            SIM images.
6 (a) Channel structure of the full Stokes parameters in the							Fourier domain. Fourier transformation of inputs for various							bandwidth scenarios: (b) low spatial, high temporal;							(c) medium spatial, medium temporal; (d) high spatial, low							temporal.
7 Preprocessed DLHM holograms after normalizing (a) with $I_0^2({\vec r})$      I    0    2    (                    r        →              ) and (b) with $I_0^3({\vec r})$      I    0    3    (                    r        →              ). Intensity reconstructions for (c) the $I_0^2({\vec r})$      I    0    2    (                    r        →              ) normalization and (d) the $I_0^3({\vec r})$      I    0    3    (                    r        →              ) normalization. A loss in the diffraction efficiency of the resulting DLHM holograms is found.
8 Fluence profiles of the 		  $s\!$		      s		      		    		-polarized beam after passage through (a) one Si plate, (b) two Si plates (beam-displacement compensating arrangement), and (c) three Si plates consisting of two plates in the beam-displacement compensating arrangement and one additional parallel plate.
9 Illustration on overlapping region selection. (a) One of the adjacent images. The red arrow indicates the direction for searching overlapping region. (b) The other of the adjacent images. (c-d) The adjacent images after overlapping region selection. Here the green dash box represents the pre-determined region used for searching the overlapping region, the green solid box represents the overlapping region, and the yellow dashed box represents the sliding candidate region.
10 A system of nanospheres each with the radius 	      $a^{(t)}$		  		    a		    		      (		      t		      )		    		  			    , which are distributed arbitrarily in the space and illuminated by a plane wave with the wave number 	      $k$		  k			    .
11 Intensity distributions at different propagation distances of a lasing beam with two different intensity distributions at two different propagation distances. (a) Distinct apple image at near-field plane, ${z} = {0}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      0          m    m  , (b) distorted image at ${z} = {100}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      100          m    m  , (c) distorted image at ${z} = {200}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      200          m    m  , and (d) distinct star image at midfield plane, ${z} = {300}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      300          m    m  .
12 Customizing speckles for nonlinear pattern illumination. (a) Experimentally recorded speckle pattern that illuminates and photoconverts a uniform fluorescent protein sample. Within the white box, the speckles obey delta statistics, and outside they obey Rayleigh statistics. (b) Experimentally recorded image of the fluorescence from the unconverted regions shows isometric and isotropic spots produced by the vortices in the delta speckles; the region photoconverted by the Rayleigh speckles features large, irregular, and interconnected fluorescent grains.