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1 Schematic model of adatoms bonding selection on a new step; the red spheres are adatoms, the gray spheres are underneath terrace, and the blue spheres are initial step and initial island.
2 Effect of coherence on the intensity distribution of a propagating laser beam from a digital degenerate cavity laser. (a) Intensity distribution with an incoherent laser light beam at ${z} = {0}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      0          m    m   and ${z} = {12.5}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      12.5          m    m   (with no intracavity aperture). (b) Intensity distribution of a more coherent laser light beam at ${z} = {0}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      0          m    m   and ${z} = {12.5}\;{\rm mm}$      z    =      12.5          m    m   (with a 4 mm diameter far-field aperture).
3 Residual maps from polishing the lattice backed mirror. The								locations of each map: (a) 12 o’clock, (b) 3 o’clock,								(c) 6 o’clock, and (d) center. The								peripheral samples (a)–(c) are at the same radial								distance, which is equal to the mounting radial								distance.
4 TG-SSSI measurements of fundamental and SHG STOVs. (a) Top: Intensity profile 	      ${I_S}({x,\tau})$            I      S        (      x    ,    τ    )	     of fundamental 	      $l = + 1$  l  =  +  1	     STOV; bottom: spatiotemporal phase 	      ${\Delta}{{\Phi}}({x,\tau})$      Δ              Φ        (      x    ,    τ    )	     showing one 	      ${{2}}\pi$            2        π	     winding. (b) Top: SHG output pulse 	      $I_S^{2\omega}({x,\tau})$      I    S          2      ω        (      x    ,    τ    )	     showing two donut holes embedded in pulse; bottom: spatiotemporal phase profile 	      ${\Delta}{{{\Phi}}^{2\omega}}({x,\tau})$      Δ                                Φ                            2        ω              (      x    ,    τ    )	     showing two 	      ${{2}}\pi$            2        π	     windings. Phase traces are blanked in regions of negligible intensity, where phase extraction fails. These images represent 500 shot averages: the extracted phase shift from each spectral interferogram is extracted, then the fringes of each frame (shot) are aligned and averaged, and then the phase map is extracted [23].
5 Velocity and flow direction maps estimated by tracking flowing microdroplets in consecutive frames with DOLI. (a) Reconstructed velocity maps with color-encoded velocity in the range of 0–12 mm/s. (b) Reconstructed direction map with color-encoded angle indicated by the color-wheel.
6 Temporal evolutions of a chirped Airy pulse with (a) 		  $C = {{0}}$		      C		      =		      						  0					      		    		 and (b) 		  $Cs \gt {{0}}$		      C		      s		      >		      						  0					      		    		.
7 Evolution history of the unit cell topology for maximizing the seventh band gap of PhCs under TM mode. Obtained topologies after (a) the first, (b) the second, (c) the fourth, (d) the sixth, (e) the eighth sub-optimization problems, and (f) the final optimum.
8 Wavefront nephogram of the system under 4°C uniform temperature rise load.
9 (a) Channel structure of the full Stokes parameters in the							Fourier domain. Fourier transformation of inputs for various							bandwidth scenarios: (b) low spatial, high temporal;							(c) medium spatial, medium temporal; (d) high spatial, low							temporal.
10 Multifunctional longitudinal magnetization patterns induced by the high-order AP-LG vortex modes with the radial modes index p and the truncation parameter β. (a1)-(a4) and (b1)-(b4) are β = 2.732, 2.051, and 1.753, and 1.576 when p = 1in the x-y plane and r-z plane, respectively; (c1)-(c4) are β = 3.545, 2.854, 2.506, and 2.411 when p = 3 in the x-y plane; (c1)-(c4) are β = 4.252, 3.489, 3.234, and 3.078 when p = 5 in the x-y plane.
11 Spatiotemporal HBT effect under different values of (a)-(h) 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {I}}$		  		    σ		    		      			I		      		    		  			    , (i)-(p) 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {cs}}$		  		    σ		    		      			cs		      		    		  			     with (a)-(d), (i)-(l) 	      $q_{12}$		  		    q		    		      12		    		  			     = 0 and (e)-(h), (m)-(p) 	      $q_{12}$		  		    q		    		      12		    		  			     = 0.0001 cm	      $^{-1}$		  		    		    		      −		      1		    		  			    . Other parameters are 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {I}}$		  		    σ		    		      			I		      		    		  			     = 2 cm, 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {cs}}$		  		    σ		    		      			cs		      		    		  			     = 0.1 cm, 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {t}}$		  		    σ		    		      			t		      		    		  			     = 10 ps, 	      $\sigma _{\textrm {ct}}$		  		    σ		    		      			ct		      		    		  			     = 10 ps, 	      $z$		  z			     = 1000 m and 	      $q_{14}$		  		    q		    		      14		    		  			     = 	      $q_{12}/10$		  		    q		    		      12		    		  		  		    /		  		  10			    .
12 Evolution of the focusing profile of the transmitted wave							across the Weyl metacrystal with the incident dipole polarized							along the $x$								x							 direction when							the frequency approaches the Weyl frequency.